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Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

What is PID?

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) is an infection of the uterus and fallopian tubes.  It is especially com­mon in sexually active women under the age of 25, but can occur in sexually active women of any age.   If not treated, PID can cause serious health prob­lems such as infertility or increased risk of ectopic (tubal) pregnancy.

What causes PID?

PID is usually caused by bacteria that travel up the vagina into the uterus and fallopian tubes.  PID is most fre­quently caused by chlamydia or gonorrhea, but may be caused by bacteria that are not sexually transmitted. Women under age 25 who are sexually active, women who have more than one sexual partner, or women who douche are at increased risk for getting PID.  Wom­en are also at risk if their partner has other sex part­ners.  Having a prior episode of PID increases the risk of having it again. There is a small risk of PID immediately after an IUD insertion.

What are the symptoms of PID?

Symptoms can vary from mild to severe.  Mild symptoms may go unrecognized by women and their health care providers. It can take a few days to several weeks for a woman to de­velop symptoms of PID after being infected.

Symptoms can include:

  • Abdominal pain or cramping in the lower abdomen
  • Fever and/or chills
  • Painful intercourse
  • Painful urination
  • Unusual vaginal bleeding
  • Vaginal discharge with a foul odor or unusual color

How is PID diagnosed?

There is no one lab test to diagnose PID.  Women are usually tested for chlamydia and gonorrhea.  Di­agnosis is based on the symptoms and tenderness on a pelvic exam. Because the conse­quences of untreated PID are so serious, healthcare providers err on the side of treating all women who might have PID, recognizing that some women will be found to have another condition that is causing their symptoms.

How is PID treated?

PID is treated with antibiotics which also treat gonorrhea and chlamydia. The most common regimen includes an injection of Rocephin followed by a 2 week course of oral doxycycline.

It is important to finish all the antibiotics you are given to completely get rid of the infection. You should return to your provider in 3-4 days to make sure the antibiotics are working. Your partner should also be treated even if he has no symptoms.

Women who are not treated or who have more than one episode of PID are at increased risk for chronic pelvic pain, infertility, and tubal pregnancy due to damage and scarring of the fallopian tubes.

How can I prevent PID?

Abstaining from sexual intercourse is the only sure way to prevent PID. Being in a long term, mo­nogamous relationship is the next best strategy.

Protecting yourself from sexually transmitted in­fections (STIs) helps reduce your risk for PID.  This includes using condoms every time you have inter­course, limiting the number of sexual partners you have, abstaining from sex with infected partners, getting early treatment for symptoms of an STI, and getting routine STI screening tests.


  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:
  • American College of Obstetricians and Gynecol­ogists (ACOG). Pelvic Inflammatory Disease. ACOG Patient Education Pamphlet, 1999.
  • Division of STD Prevention (DSTDP) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -
  • CDC National Prevention Information Network (NPIN) 1-800-458-5231 -
  • American Social Health Association (ASHA) 1-800-783-9877 -